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Inflatable space station advantages and disadvantages

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Inflatable space stations provide numerous advantages over standard spacecraft designs. They are less expensive to launch and operate, and their vast size allows for more comfortable living and working conditions. However, inflatable space stations have some drawbacks, including a higher danger of puncture, leading in a shorter lifespan.

Advantages

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One of the most significant benefits of an inflatable space station is its low cost. Because inflatable modules weigh less and can fit onto a smaller rocket, they are far less expensive to launch than typical metal spacecraft. An inflatable station uses less fuel to maintain its position in orbit than a rigid one.

In terms of habitability, inflatable space stations have various advantages. Their size enables for more roomy living and working circumstances, making long-duration missions more pleasant. Inflatable modules also provide higher thermal insulation than metal spacecraft, allowing them to keep the crew at a more comfortable temperature.

Disadvantages

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However, inflatable space stations have several drawbacks. One of the most important concerns is puncture; if an inflatable module is punctured, it will slowly collapse, posing a serious hazard to the crew.

While the ISS is meant to remain 15 to 20 years, Bigelow Aerospace’s BA-330 module is only designed for a 15-year mission.

One problem of an inflatable space station is that it is vulnerable to solar and cosmic radiation. Because of the large size of an inflatable module, it has a larger surface area exposed to radiation than a regular spacecraft.

Another downside of inflatable space stations is that they are more difficult to repair than standard spacecraft. The multi-layer material used in inflatable modules is puncture-resistant, but it is also difficult to repair.

Conclusions

Inflatable space stations provide several advantages over regular spacecraft, including lower cost, improved habitability, and a longer lifespan. They do, however, have significant drawbacks, including as radiation exposure and repair difficulty.

But just because something has drawbacks doesn’t mean we shouldn’t utilize it, and the possibility of overcoming the drawbacks makes the technology even more appealing.

4 Reason Why is space colonization important

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Humans have always observed the stars with fascination. We have glanced at the night sky for centuries, dreaming about what might be out there. Our understanding of the universe has improved enormously since the invention of sophisticated telescopes and space exploration technologies. Nonetheless, there are many mysteries to be solved and new possibilities to explore.

Colonization is one method of expanding our knowledge of space. By building permanent human settlements on other planets and moons, we can not only learn more about these distant worlds, but also assure our species’ survival in the event that something tragic occurs on Earth.

Backup Plan

space settlement - 4 Reason Why is space colonization important

There are lots of reasons why space colonization is critical. It is, first and foremost, a backup plan for humanity in the event that something goes wrong on our home planet. Having communities elsewhere would provide us a second chance as a species in the event of a natural tragedy, an asteroid hit, or a nuclear war.

Expand and explore.

- 4 Reason Why is space colonization important

Furthermore, space colonization would enable humanity to expand and explore our universe in ways that would be impossible from Earth. We would be able to set up mining operations on asteroids and other worlds to extract important resources, establish research stations to study distant stars and galaxies, and construct massive telescopes to observe the universe in greater detail.

Mitigate Problems

- 4 Reason Why is space colonization important

Finally, by colonizing space, we can reduce some of the issues caused by Earth’s resource scarcity. We would no longer need to battle over restricted amounts of oil, water, and other things if we had unlimited resources available off-world. This would assist to reduce conflict and strengthen international relations.

Rethinking Civilization

yang zhoa gan redo merge - 4 Reason Why is space colonization important
By Yang Zhoa Gan

Space colonization is also critical in reconsidering how civilization should function from the ground up. Most people could only imagine one way for civilization to function in the past: with huge, centralized governments regulating everything.

Space colonization, on the other hand, opens up the possibility of a different form of civilization, one in which people are more self-sufficient and decentralized. This could result in a more peaceful and stable world, as well as increased respect for individual rights.

Overall, space colonization is a critical objective for humanity. It would not only help us grasp our place in the universe, but it would also assure our species’ existence.

5 Species of Humans (Difference Between All Human Species)

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There were numerous different types of humans. All appear nearly identical, although some are significantly different from others, while others appear almost identical. But what actually differentiates all human species?

Our DNA holds the key to the answer. The majority of our DNA is shared by all humans. However, it is that 1% difference that defines us all. It is responsible for our many physical characteristics, as well as our various blood types and diseases to which we are prone.

So, while we may appear to be different on the surface, we are actually more similar than we know. That is a good thing! Because it implies that no matter how someone appears, they are still human.

All Major Humans

  • Homo erectus
  • Homo sapiens
  • Homo ergaster
  • Homo habilis
  • Homo antecessor

Era

The main difference between all human species is the time period they lived in.

Homo erectus was the first human species and lived from 1.9 million to 108,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens, which is the current human species, has been roughly around for about 300,000 to 200,000 years.

Homo ergaster is another early human species that lived from 1.4 million to about 600,000 years ago.

Homo habilis was an even earlier human species that lived from 2.3 million to 1.4 million years ago.

Finally, Homo antecessor was the very first human species and lived from about 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.

Body Features

Homo erectus

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Homo erectus was the earliest species of human to have a flat face, large nose, and potentially minimal body hair covering. Although brain size much above that of predecessor species, capacity varied greatly depending on population.

Body FeaturesData
Hight4 ft 9 in – 6 ft 1
Weight40–68 kg

Homo sapiens

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Homo sapiens have a big and well developed prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain linked with higher intellect. They are clever, have episodic memory, flexible facial expressions, self-awareness, and a theory of mind.

Body FeaturesData
Hight5 ft 4 in – 6 ft 1
Weight45–72 kg

Homo ergaster

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Homo ergaster possesses a greater body mass, relatively long legs, obligatory bipedalism, tiny jaws and teeth (showing a significant shift in food), and body proportions and inferred lifestyles that are more comparable to modern humans.

Body FeaturesData
Hight4 ft 9 in to 6 ft 1 in
Weight52–63 kg

Homo habilis

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The hypothesis that Homo habilis is a small-statured human with poor long-distance travel ability has been questioned, based mostly on assuming a comparable anatomy to earlier australopithecines.

Body FeaturesData
Hight3 ft 3 in – 3 ft 11 in
Weight20–37 kg

Homo antecessor

Homo antecessor facial reconstruction - 5 Species of Humans (Difference Between All Human Species)

Although only a juvenile specimen is available, Homo antecessor’s face is strikingly comparable to that of modern humans rather than other archaic humans, particularly in its general flatness and the curving of the cheekbone as it merges into the upper jaw.

Body FeaturesData
Hight5 ft 4 in – 6 ft 2 in
Weight48 to 53 kg

Disadvantages of Human Intelligence

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In this fast changing world, we are becoming increasingly reliant on technology to stay ahead. Everything seemed to be possible, from driverless automobiles to art-generating artificial intelligence (Ai).

Errors

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One of the most biggest weaknesses of human intelligence is that humans are prone to errors. We frequently make decisions based on emotion rather than logic, which can have terrible effects. During the First World War, for example, generals would send thousands of troops into battle without knowing what was really going on on the front lines. This resulted in massive casualties with little gain.

In contrast, machines do not get tired and can process vast amounts of data quickly and accurately. They also don’t have emotions, so this will result in fewer to no baises in their judgment. As a result, Future machines will make better decisions than humans in many situations.

External forces

society - Disadvantages of Human Intelligence

Another big disadvantage of human intelligence is external forces. As most of you know, our thoughts do not emerge from nowhere; they are heavily influenced by what we see, read, and hear in our environment, as well as the company we keep. If we are constantly exposed to, it will eventually shape our thinking and cause us to make illogical or unhealthy decisions.

Another disadvantage of human intellect is its slowness. When it comes to specialized tasks like computation or data processing, humans just cannot compete with machines. As a result, supercomputers are employed for complex tasks like weather prediction and stock market analysis.

Limitations

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Finally, no matter how much we train or educate ourselves, human intelligence has fundamental limitations that cannot be overcome. For example, humans are biased creatures with failing memory. Our intelligence deteriorates as we age, and we become less capable of thinking abstractly or solving complicated issues.

To summarize, human intelligence has certain distinct benefits over artificial intelligence for the time being, but it also has some substantial disadvantages. These human advantages are likely to disappear as artificial intelligence gets more advanced.

4 Best Energy Source we have

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In a world that is increasingly energy-conscious, it’s important to know which energy sources are the most efficient. Here are the five best energy sources we have available today.

Nuclear Power

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Nuclear power is one of the best energy sources we have. It is safe, clean, and efficient. Nuclear power plants produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases. They are also very reliable and can operate for many years without interruption.

Nuclear power is produced by splitting atoms in a process called nuclear fission. This releases energy that is used to heat water, which produces steam. The steam turns turbines, which generate electricity.

Nuclear power plants are expensive to build, but they have low operating costs. Once a plant is built, it can provide electricity at a lower cost than other types of power plants.

Nuclear power has some disadvantages. One major disadvantage is that it produces radioactive waste that must be carefully managed and stored. Another concern is the possibility of a nuclear accident, such as the one that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in 1986. Despite these concerns, nuclear power remains one of the best energy sources we have available today.

Solar Energy

Solar panel array rooftop - 4 Best Energy Source we have

Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite resources that will eventually run out, solar energy is a renewable resource. The sun has been shining for billions of years and will continue to do so for billions more. There’s no danger of running out of solar power, making it a sustainable source of energy.

Generating electricity from solar power doesn’t produce any harmful emissions or pollutants. It’s a clean form of energy that won’t contribute to climate change or air pollution. Additionally, using solar panels can help reduce your carbon footprint and make you more environmentally responsible.

The initial cost of installing solar panels may be higher than other forms of energy generation, but over time they become much cheaper to operate. Once they’re installed, there are no fuel costs or emissions fees associated with generating electricity from the sun. In fact, in some cases, you may even get paid for the extra power your panels produce! With utility bills on the rise, investing in solar power can save you money in the long run. And as technology improves and becomes more efficient, the cost of going solar will continue to drop.

Wind Energy 

wind farm - 4 Best Energy Source we have

Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. It is abundant, clean, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective. Wind power is also versatile and can be used to generate electricity, pump water, or power vehicles.

Wind energy has been used for centuries. Windmills were first used in Persia and China to grind grain and pump water. In the United States, windmills were used to pump water for farms and ranches in the 1800s. Today, wind turbines are used to generate electricity. 

Wind turbines work by converting the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. The blades of the turbine rotate when hit by the wind, which turns a generator that produces electricity. 

Hydro Energy 

Hydro - 4 Best Energy Source we have

Hydro energy is one of the best sources of renewable energy that we have available to us. Hydro power plants use the force of moving water to generate electricity, and they can be located on rivers, lakes, or man-made reservoirs. The United States has over 2,300 hydroelectric dams that supply about 7% of electricity needs and 17% of global electricity generation.

Advantages of hydro energy include that it is a very clean source of power with few emissions, it is a renewable resource that will never run out, and it is also very efficient. Another advantage is that hydroelectric dams can provide other benefits such as flood control and recreation.

Disadvantages of hydro power include that damming rivers can disrupt local ecosystems, and the large scale projects can be expensive to build. In addition, droughts or changes in weather patterns can decrease the amount of power generated by a hydroelectric plant.

Overall, hydro energy is a great option for generating renewable electricity, and its advantages far outweigh its disadvantages.

Can we make space elevator in next 25 years?

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The space elevator has been a dream of scientists and engineers for many years. The concept is simple: instead of using rockets to send payloads into orbit, we build a giant tower that reaches all the way to space. Then we attach a cable to the tower and use it to lift payloads into orbit.

The benefits of a space elevator are numerous. It would be much cheaper than launching rockets, it would be reusable, and it would produce no pollution. But the biggest benefit is that it would make accessing space easier than ever before.

So can we build a space elevator in the next 25 years? Let’s take a look at what we need and what we have.

What We Need

There are two main challenges that need to be overcome in order to build a space elevator: building the tower and attaching the cable.

Building the Elevator

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The first challenge is building the elevator itself. The tallest human-made structure in the world today is Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which stands at 2,717 feet (828 meters). To put this in context, if we wanted to build a space elevator that only goes to low Earth orbit (LEO), which is about 200 miles (320 kilometers) above the Earth’s surface, we would need to build 320 Burj Khalifas stacked on top of each other.

And if we want our elevator to reach geostationary orbit (GEO), which is 22,236 miles (35,786 kilometers) above Earth’s surface, our tower would need to be nearly 35,786 kilometers! But you must also understand that we do not need to construct entire buildings or towers 35,786 kilometres long; rather, we only need to construct a cable that long, which is clearly not as difficult as constructing the entire Burj Kalifa that long. But still, it is very difficult to even build a cable strong enough to handle the pressure, and this is not possible without a major breakthrough in this area.

However, there are several proposed solutions for building extremely tall cables on Earth that could one day make space elevators possible. These include using nanotechnology to create cables. With continued research and development in these areas, it may one day be possible to build an extremely tall structure on Earth capable of reaching all the way into space. 

Attaching the cable

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The second challenge is attaching the cable from our tower all the way up into space. This presents two problems. First, how do we support such an incredibly long cable? Second, how do we keep the space debris from crashing against each other and breaking down? Solutions to these problems have also been proposed, but they remain largely untested and unproven at this time. 

One suggestion is to use carbon nanotubes for both the strength and flexibility required for an orbital cable, and make a station as a counterbalance at the end of the cable. More research will need to be done in these areas before any definitive conclusions can be drawn, but there remains hope that one day these technologies will mature enough to allow for the construction of a space elevator.

Conclusion

So, can we build a space elevator in the next 25 years? While we do not yet have all of the necessary technologies, we are making significant progress, and it may one day be possible to turn this dream into reality; it is unlikely that we will be able to build a space elevator in 25 years, but it may be more feasible in 50 to 80 years.

3 Most intelligent insects and their levels of intelligence

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Most normal people have this idea that insects don’t have intelligence. To some degree they might be right, but they only lack our kind of intelligence and rather they have one of the most efficient brains on this planet because not only is their brain very small, but they are one of the most thriving types of life on the planet and possibly our galaxy.

But before I let you know the most intelligent insects, let me explain their brain first. As I said before, their brain is very efficient, and the reason is very simple. Their brain is extremely small, but they are still able to do many complex tasks, and living, surviving, and thriving are enough complicated tasks for their small brain to call it the most efficient brain on the planet.

When we try to figure out how smart an insect is, we run into a significant problem: what precisely is intelligence for insects? Obviously, we can’t simply sit and talk to them to find out what they know about the world, physics, and so on. And, to be honest, those aren’t ideas that are really interesting to insects.

As a result, insect intelligence cannot be judged in the same manner that human intelligence can. This means we need to figure out what types of cognitive behaviors insects have and how they compare to other insects and to humans.

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The brain of an insect is divided into three pairs of lobes: protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum. The lobes are basically joined ganglia. They are spidersclusters of tiny neurons used by insects to process sensory data. Each insect has a unique set of neurons.

Even so, insects are extremely complex creatures. Insects, despite their small brain size and low neuron density, can form memories and make smart decisions. A bee, for example, has around 1 million neurons, whereas humans have billions, which increases our cognitive capacity.

Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Bigger brains do not automatically imply greater intelligence. Scientists believe that generalist insects are smarter than others. The term refers to insects that can adapt to any environment.

Smartest Insects

Honey Bees

Apis mellifera Western honey bee - 3 Most intelligent insects and their levels of intelligence

The honey bee, unlike most insects, is a social animal, which requires it to have many intelligent abilities that non-social insects (such as flies or beetles) do not. And its intelligence is astounding: the insects can recognise and differentiate between human faces, which is a surprising attribute given that it isn’t really necessary for their survival. Another interesting fact: bees can count. In one experiment, honey bees were rewarded for stopping at the third in a series of landmarks, and they demonstrated the ability to remember this location and thus count. (The distance was changed while the number of landmarks remained constant to discourage the bees from using their sense of distance.) Further research revealed that their maximum counting ability is around four.

Bees can solve problems through analysis, learning, and memory. “At the start of its forage for food job, every bee is entirely flower-naive,” says Chittka, referring to the bee’s lack of instinctive knowledge of how to collect nectar or pollen from flowers. That’s a problem because flowers are so diverse: different flowers will require completely different strategies to exploit, and it’s up to each individual bee to figure out how to attack each different flower.

Bees can learn new food-gathering strategies from other bees, which few other insects can do. Chittka described a technique known as “nectar robbing,” in which bees find that it is easier to suck nectar from a flower’s spur than it is to figure out how to get inside the flower. Other bees have demonstrated the ability to observe this strategy, comprehend its purpose, master it, and remember it for future flowers. That is very clever!

Ants

Where Do Ants Go in Winter 1 - 3 Most intelligent insects and their levels of intelligence

Ants, despite their small size, rank second in insect intelligence. One explanation is that ants, like honey bees, have a eusocial community. It allows them to survive and thrive in ways that solitary insects cannot.

A further reason ants are thought to be intelligent is less well-known. Many people are aware that ants are gatherers who store food for the long winter months. That seems like a good reason to think of ants as intelligent, but a lesser-known reason is that some ants aren’t just gatherers – they’re also farmers.

Farmer ants get their name from the fact that they grow some of their own food. In their colony, they cultivate and harvest a specific type of fungus. Aphids are sometimes kept as livestock and gathered around. The ants don’t eat the aphids, but they do eat their poop occasionally, so they like to keep them around.

Cockroaches

Twilley In Defense of the Cockroach - 3 Most intelligent insects and their levels of intelligence

Most people do not consider cockroaches to be the most intelligent of insects. After all, cockroaches do not have the same eusocial community as ants and honey bees, and growing their own food or making up dances are not typical cockroach behaviours. Cockroaches, on the other hand, have some intelligent behaviours that place them third on this list.

There are two primary reasons why cockroaches are considered intelligent insects. Cockroaches, for example, can remember multiple routes around your house. When a cockroach is startled, it scurries away in an obvious random direction – but it turns out that its escape route isn’t actually random. Cockroaches plan multiple escape routes in their heads, and when startled, they choose one and try to escape.

Remembering specific routes is not something that all insects and animals are capable of. This escape memory must also make split-second decisions, demonstrating the speed with which these insects’ brains can react.

The intelligence of the cockroach is thought to be closely linked to its visual processing unit and the mushroom body of its brain. Roaches use their intelligence for more basic tasks with it.

Five Examples of Pseudoscience

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1. We only use 10% of our brains:

We only use 10% of our brains: This is a popular misconception that has been perpetuated by Hollywood and pop culture. The idea that we only use 10% of our brain power is simply not true. Our brains are constantly active, even when we’re asleep. All of the brain’s regions are used throughout the day as we think, feel, and move.

2. Free will

Free will: Free will is the belief that humans have the power to choose their own actions, even in the face of obstacles. This belief is widespread, despite being unsupported by scientific evidence. In fact, research suggests that free will may be nothing more than an illusion.

There are a number of reasons why free will is not real scientifically. First, the idea of free will contradicts the laws of physics. For example, Newton’s law of cause and effect states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This means that our actions are determined by what came before them, and we have no control over our destiny.

Second, neuroscience research has shown that our decisions are actually made before we’re even aware of them. Studies have found that activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for decision-making, begins up to 10 seconds before we consciously make a choice. This suggests that our decisions are predetermined by brain activity, not by conscious thought.

Third, psychological studies have shown that people often rationalize their choices after the fact, convincing themselves that they made the best decision possible even when it was clearly not the case. This phenomenon is known as “confirmation bias” and it demonstrates how our beliefs can distort our perception of reality.

3. Blue light harms our vision.

Blue light harms our vision: Blue light does not cause permanent damage to our eyesight, although it can cause temporary eye strain. However, too much exposure to blue light can disrupt our sleep patterns by suppressing the production of melatonin, the hormone that regulates sleepiness and wakefulness.

4. GMOs are unsafe to eat

GMOs are not unsafe to eat: There is no evidence that genetically modified foods are any less safe than traditional foods. In fact, GMO crops are often more resistant to pests and diseases, which can lead to higher yields and lower prices for consumers.

5. Homeopathy is an effective treatment for illness

Homeopathy is a pseudoscientific practice based on the belief that diluting a substance and taking it orally will cure illnesses. There is no scientific evidence to support this claim, and homeopathic remedies have been found to be no more effective than placebo in clinical trials.

Starship Pros and Cons

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The commercial space industry is expanding, with new companies and capabilities appearing on a regular basis. SpaceX’s Starship, a reusable spacecraft meant to transport humans to Mars and beyond, is one of the most anticipated projects in this field.

Starship has sparked a lot of interest, but it also has its skeptics. Let’s look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of this big undertaking.

PROS:

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1. Reusability: One of Starship’s main selling features is its reusability. The spacecraft is planned to be launched several times, lowering the cost of space travel significantly.

2. Passenger Capacity: The Starship can transport up to 100 passengers every trip, making it perfect for large-scale missions such as Mars colony.

3. Flexibility: Unlike traditional rockets, which are constrained by their size and shape, Starship may be modified to handle a variety of payloads and mission characteristics. This makes it a very adaptable spacecraft for future space exploration efforts.

4 Survival Capabilities: In the event of an emergency, the Starship is outfitted with a number of life-support systems that will keep passengers alive until help comes.

5 Autonomy: Starship, thanks to its powerful artificial intelligence system, can fly autonomously without the need for human assistance if necessary. This might be useful for long-distance travels where crew members may not be able to stay awake the rest of the time!

CONS: 

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1) Cost: While reusability should potentially lower the cost of each launch, creating and maintaining a fleet of Starships will still be extremely expensive.

2) Risk: Space flight is inherently dangerous, and many mishaps have occurred throughout the years. With so many people on board, one error might spell disaster.

3) Technical Difficulties: Many questions remain concerning how effectively Starship will operate in reality. The technology has yet to be thoroughly tested, and there may be unexpected issues once it begins flying frequently.

4) Environmental Impact: Some are concerned that launching so many rockets may contaminate the Earth’s atmosphere and harm sensitive ecosystems such as coral reefs.

5) Reliance on SpaceX: If something happens to SpaceX or its creator, Elon Musk, the entire project might crumble.

5 Evidence of Evolution (Observable)

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There are many amazing evidences of evolution. One example is the fossil record. The fossil record is a historical document that shows how life has changed over time. It includes a variety of evidence, such as fossils of different organisms, tracks and burrows, and even chemical residues. This record provides scientists with information about the history of life on Earth and how it has changed over time. 

Despite these things being great and solid evidence for evolution, you can’t recreate them or experiment with them in a human lifetime, but there is a key mechanism of evolution and that is natural selection, but the evidence I am talking about is not natural because we are one that is doing that even before we understand the whole concept of evolution, but the mechanism is based on natural selection.


Selective Breeding

dog breeds med - 5 Evidence of Evolution (Observable)

Selective breeding refers to the process of selecting individuals with desirable traits in order to produce offspring with those same traits. Farmers and breeders have used it for thousands of years to increase crop and animal productivity.

Selective breeding is now used to create plants and animals that are healthier, more disease resistant, and more productive. Dairy cows, for example, have been bred to produce more milk than their ancestors. Selective breeding can also be used to create new plant or animal species that are not found in nature.

The navel orange is a well-known example of a plant that was created through selective breeding. This orange has a small “navel” at the base where the fruit was originally attached to the tree. The navel orange was developed in Brazil in the 1800s by crossing two types of Chinese oranges.

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Selective breeding frequently makes use of artificial selection, which is the intentional breeding of plants or animals for desired traits. This is separate from natural selection, which occurs when organisms that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a higher rate than those that are not.

While artificial selection can be used to produce desired results more quickly than natural selection, because in natural selection, you have to survive and reproduce to get your traits into the evolutionary chain, natural selection takes longer to produce changes than artificial selection, and in selective breeding, we manually choose animals whose traits we want in their offspring, so we breed them to get the changes we want in animals that basically cut the time of surviving and finding a mate to reproduce, resulting in faster changes than natural selection.

Selective breeding works because of evolution, so it is great evidence of evolution. It is very comparable to gravity. Things fall down because of gravity, and similarly, selective breeding works because of evolution.

Despite this amazing evidence of evolution, selective breeding is an important tool that farmers and breeders use to improve the quality of their crops and animals.

Fossils

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Another great piece of evidence for evolution is fossils. Fossils reveal the characteristics of animals and plants in the past. They also demonstrate how various species are connected to one another. Horses and rhinos, for example, have a shared ancestry, according to the fossil record. This is due to the fact that their bones and teeth are quite similar.

DNA

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Another great piece of evidence for evolution is DNA. DNA is the molecule that holds all living creatures’ genetic instructions. All animals and plants have DNA, and it is extremely similar between species. Human DNA, for example, is 98% similar to chimp DNA. This resemblance indicates that humans and chimps have a common ancestry.

Convergent and divergent evolution both play important roles in how related animals develop differing features or skeletal structure.

The process through which two or more unrelated organisms evolve identical features is known as convergent evolution. This occurs when the species share identical surroundings and challenges. Sharks and dolphins, for example, are both aquatic animals. They have acquired streamlined bodies as well as swimming fins.

Divergent evolution is the process by which two or more related species evolve divergent features. This occurs when the species live in different environments and confront different challenges. Humans and chimps are both primates. Humans have acquired upright posture and opposable thumbs for walking and tool use. Chimpanzees have acquired long arms and muscular hands for climbing trees.

Embryology

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One of the most incredible pieces of evidence for evolution comes from embryology. Embryo research demonstrates that all animals have a common ancestor. This is because all animals go through comparable developmental stages in the womb. Human embryos, for example, start out looking like small fish with gills and tail fins. They eventually get legs and arms and abandon their gills and tail fins. This embryonic resemblance is significant proof that humans, fish, and other creatures share a common ancestry.

Simulation

Many simulations have been developed to simulate system-like evolution in which random changes and positive selection of those random changes occur and are observed.

The simulator, which will be presented at the Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, only works in two dimensions for simplicity. The team has created 30 unique tasks, such as walking, jumping over obstacles, dragging or pulling goods, and crawling beneath barriers, and researchers can even create their own challenges.

The environment enables design algorithms to create robots by connecting squares that can be soft, rigid, or effectors muscles that allow the rest of the robot to move. An AI system then learns how to operate this body and provides input to the design algorithm on how well it performed in various tasks.

By repeating this process many times the two algorithms can reach the best possible combination of body layout and control system to solve the challenge.

And if you’re wondering how this is a simulation of evolution, let me explain. In nature, we animals are given tasks to survive and reproduce, and when random mutations occur in us, only those mutations that help us survive and reproduce are kept.

However, in this simulation, the task given to these ai is not just to survive and reproduce, but also to walk, jump over obstacles, carry or pull objects, crawl through barriers, and perform other tasks, and ai algorithms assemble these diverse squares to achieve their given tasks.

unimals - 5 Evidence of Evolution (Observable)

And here’s another simulation Stanford scientists were interested in the physical-mental interaction that occurred during our evolution from blobs to tool-using apes. Could the brain be influenced by the body’s capacities and vice versa? It’s been mentioned before — over a century ago, in fact — and it’s undeniable that a grabbing hand learns to operate items more quickly than a less specialized limb.

“In essence, we discover that evolution rapidly selects forms that learn faster, allowing behaviours learnt late in the lives of early ancestors to be exhibited early in the lives of their offspring,” the scientists wrote in their research, which was published in the journal Nature.

They didn’t only learn to learn faster; the evolutionary process picked body types that would allow them to adapt and apply lessons faster. An octopus flop might bring you to the finish line just as fast on flat ground, but slopes and ridges required a body arrangement that was fast, sturdy, and adjustable. Introducing such body into the fighting ring gave those unimals from the school of hard knocks an advantage over the competitors. Their adaptable bodies were better able to apply the lessons their minds were teaching — and they quickly left their less adaptable competitors in the dust.

What does all of this mean, except than producing a few fun 3D stick figures galloping through virtual terrain? According to the paper, the experiment “lays the groundwork for large-scale in silico experiments to yield scientific insights into how learning and evolution collaborate to create sophisticated relationships between environmental complexity, morphological intelligence, and the comprehensibility of control tasks.”

Ending Notes

While researching this topic, I discovered that many people try to find how one topic is not evidence for evolution, but those people frequently misunderstood how science works, science looks for evidence and evidence is not served on a plate to us rather we have to find it, and most things in the scientific community that question evolution often end up making evolution a better and more accurate, science will abandon any idea or theory as soon as there are better theories with more evidence.